Usos y Fundamentos del Láser - Summary

 Summary

The first laser device was developed by Maiman. Then, lasers become widely used in medicine and surgery, because deliver concentrate and controllable energy to tissues. To have a desired biological effect, the developed energy must be absorbed in tissues.  Laser light is absorbed and transformed into heat. Target and not – target tissue can be affected. Carbonization, and in consequence, tissue  damage  can occurs , if the laser energy continues heating and increasing tissue temperature over 200 degrees, therefore , clinician must control the parameters, including energy, beam diameter and duration of exposure,  to produce a successful result, keeping in mind that the rate of ablation vary with the composition and structure of the surgical  site. Besides, the different wavelengths of lasers have different absorption coefficients by the varied composition of human tissue.  

More used lasers in dentistry to achieve periodontal treatments, including periodontal surgery , have wavelengths that belongs to visible and invisible rate of the electromagnetic spectrum. 

We can mention Erbium YAG laser (2.940 nm), Carbon Dioxide (10.600 nm), Nd:YAG (1.064 nm) , Diode (810-980 nm) and Argon laser ( 488 nm,  blue color and 514 nm,  blue green one). 

Argon, Diode and Nd:YAG have a high affinity for blood components and tissue pigments. Erbium and Carbon Dioxide are highly absorbed by water, principal component of soft tissues. Therefore, there is  no one perfect laser device because of the limitation of the tissue composition and the physics of light interaction. 

Benefits for using dental lasers in periodontics, includes the ability to selectively and precisely interact with diseased tissues, to reduce the amount of bacteria and other pathogens in the surgical field and achieve good hemostasis with the reduced need for sutures.  

Gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, frenectomy, can be performed.  Some laser instruments have and indication to remove the disease sulcular epithelium (gingival curettage) for the initial treatment  of periodontal disease. This procedure is done in conjunction with scaling and root planning and  produces a significant bacterial reduction. 

Osseous surgery can be achieved with Erbium laser (well absorbed in hard tissues). 

Lasers for implantology applications, is widely used for soft tissue incision or ablation, for exposing submerged implants, and treatment of peri - implantitis without damaging the implant surface. 

Key words: TheodoreMaiman, Lasers in periodontics,Lasers in Implantology, laser’s tissue interaction.